1930’s

1930’s

1930's Scrapbook

1930’s Scrapbook, relive the lifestyles and fashions for this 20th century decade.

Britain was still recovering from the ravages of World War One and in 1932 over three million were unemployed. Oswald Mosley’s fascists group was formed and started causing trouble in London with marches and demonstrations. The jobless of Jarrow marched to the city in 1936 to highlight the desperate situation in the north of the country. Despite all the gloom there was plenty to be cheerful about. The cinema was showing ‘talkies’ and Shirley Temple was a top box office attraction in 1935. For children there were Mickey Mouse and Popeye and the first feature length cartoon, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, was shown in 1937. Monopoly could be found in many homes in 1936 when it rivalled the word game Lexicon. Dinky cars became popular with young children. A new wave of chocolate bars became available, Mars, Aero, Kit Kat, Milky Way and Milky Bar were in the shops at 2d (1p) a bar. There was a steadily improving selection of labour saving appliances for the home. Hoover brought out an upright vacuum cleaner which boasted a novel dust seeking light. The Ewbank table mangle aimed at making wash day easier by squeezing the water out of the clothes instead of wringing them out by hand.

 

Sunlight Soap

An increased awareness of health and hygiene coincided with an increased standard of living and more people could afford soap and toothpaste. Sunlight soap, Lux and Palmolive were very popular as was Gibbs Dentifrice, Colgate and Pepsodent toothpaste.

Still bringing a sparkle to homes were Windolene (1922), Duraglit (1927) and Brillo (1928) with new products such as Dreft washing powder competing with Rinso which had been on the market since 1910.

Breakfast cereals such as Kelloggs Cornflakes, Rice Krispies, Quaker Oats and Shredded Wheat were in huge demand and by the end of 1930’s the American companies had established factories in Britain.

Many of the major cigarette brands promoted their products by putting cards in the packets which were collected by children, topics included footballers, sporting celebrities, royalty, birds and flowers. Popular brands of cigarettes were Players Please, Senior Service, Wills Woodbines and Black Cat Cigarettes.

Most homes had a radio by the end of the 1930’s and the BBC provided a programme of drama, news , religion, Childrens hour and music. For those who could afford a holiday the seaside beckoned and holiday camps were dotted all around the coast.

Butlins Holiday Camps

 

 

 

Butlins Skegness was opened in 1936 followed by Clacton- on- Sea in 1938, each chalet had its own cold running water and electricity, entertainment was provided in all weathers.

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1920’s

1920’s

The Roaring Twenties Memorabilia Pack

World War 1 had caused high unemployment especially for young men, many of whom had been injured or were suffering from shell shock, but the 1920’s was also a time full of change and invention.

Rambling and cycling were popular pastimes and with motoring more affordable the leisure industry boomed. The first commercial flights began in 1919, then in 1924 Imperial Airways, with the British government’s help, offered flights to the major European cities. Petrol stations had been introduced in 1920 as Britain’s roads were filling up with cars and commercial vehicles. Privately run railways were restructured to form four companies, LNER, LMS, GWR and Southern in an attempt to recover lost business in the fields of holiday travel and freight. The only way to cross oceans however was by ship and the great liners took five days to travel from Southampton to New York.

Max Factor Cosmetics

Fashions for women changed radically, hemlines rose to reveal more and more leg, close fitting cloche hats became popular and the emancipated women cut their hair short and smoked cigarettes in public. Fashions for men and women became simpler which led to clothes becoming more affordable. Cosmetics were more widely used and those going to parties or dances wore mascara, rouge and lipstick. Max Factor, Elizabeth Arden and Helena Rubenstein became the leading brands.
The electric kettle, toaster, refrigerator, cooker, iron and suction cleaner were all appliances that the modern housewife dreamed of owning.

The choice of sweets grew substantially with Cadbury’s launching the chocolate Flake and Fruit and Nut bars,. Fry’s Crunchie came on the market in 1929, but chocolate was still a luxury. Toffee was still very much in demand and was produced by hundreds of small companies across the country.

1920's Scrapbook

 

 

Many people visited the cinema on a weekly basis and the screen stars were known by millions. The radio began to provide daily entertainment and on 14th November 1922 the British Broadcasting company started transmitting news and concerts from 6pm until 10pm. This new novelty caused great excitement and within a year there were 500,000 licensed receivers. The annual licence cost ten shillings.

Many toys and games tended to reflect everyday life and train sets,clockwork cars and Meccanno sets were the favourite toys for boys. Dolls were popular with girls and were becoming more lifelike.

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1910’s

The 1910’s

King George V Coin

King George V was the second son of King Edward VII, his elder brother Prince Albert had died during an outbreak of influenza at the age of 28. George married Princess Mary of Teck who had previously been engaged to his brother Albert. They had five sons and a daughter and were married for 42 years.

The early years of his reign were full of unrest. Workers in Liverpool were striking and the army had to be called in to quell the riots. The Suffragette movement was becoming increasingly violent. Ireland was also in uproar as the demand for home rule intensified. In 1912 a major disaster occurred when the ‘unsinkable’ ocean liner the Titanic hit an iceberg on her maiden voyage and sank; 1,513 passengers and crew died.

World War One Newspaper

In 1914 the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo escalated into ‘the war to end all wars’. With the outbreak of World War 1 a wave of patriotism swept the country and many young men rushed to enlist not to miss the experience. The popular belief was that it would all be over by Christmas. Lord Kitchener, who was the Secretary of State for War, initially called for 100,000 men and his famous poster, Britons Kitchener wants You, was used in his recruitment campaign. Women also backed the war effort and showed their ability to do much of the work previously done by men. Public respect for King George increased when he made many visits to hospitals, the front line, factories and dockyards. In 1917 anti german feeling made the king replace the family name from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor.

In 1918 the Representation of the People act gave women, over the age of 30, the right to vote. It was ten years later before all women over the age of 21 could vote. In 1931 the economic slump caused a political crisis in Britain and the king called for a coalition government which was eventually formed.

King George celebrated his Silver Jubilee in 1935 and he died in January 1936.

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Edwardian Era

Edwardian era

Queen Victoria’s eldest son, Albert Edward (known as Bertie) was crowned King Edward VIImotoring memorabilia pack.

With a new century and a new monarch on the throne the Edwardians embraced the future. Motor vehicles were destined to replace horses and by 1905 there were 9000 motor cars on the road. HMS Dreadnought, a steam powered battleship, made other warships obsolete. The Boy Scout movement was founded in1907 by Lord Baden Powell to encourage boys to have a sense of duty and good citizenship. Aviation was in its infancy, Louis Bleriot made the first channel crossing in 1909 and won the £1000 prize offered by the Daily Mail.

 

suffragettes memorabilia pack

 

Women were now gaining reputable jobs such as typists and this was enhancing the status of women in the workplace. The Suffragette movement, which supported the struggle for women to vote and hold office, was gathering pace with some protesters prepared to go to prison for the cause.

International sporting competitions were beginning. The first rugby contest between two nations took place in Paris in 1906 when England beat France 35-8. The same year England also beat France in football with an unbelievable score of 15-0. The Olympic Games was held in London in 1907 following the rebirth of the Olympic movement in 1896.

Brasso

 

In the home an assortment of innovations such as better ovens and more effective cleaning and polishing agents resulted in the reduction of household servants. The vacuum cleaner was promoted as a replacement for dusters and brooms, although the first models took two people to operate them! By the end of the decade the Baby Daisy vacuum cleaner could be operated by one person. Cherry Blossom shoe polish appeared in 1903, Brasso in 1905 and Persil washing powder in 1909.

 

King Edward VII died of pneumonia in 1910.

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Victorian Era

The Victorian Era

Queen Victoria Gold Sovereign

Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837 after the death of her uncle, King William IV. It was a time of great change as the benefits of the industrial evolution were all ready being felt. Steam power had transformed the speed and levels of production at textile mills and building and engineering was revolutionised by the development of stronger types of iron which allowed iron rails to be made to transport coal from the mines.

 

victorian steam trainThe railway system took off in the 1840’s and was the keystone for distribution, enabling goods to be transported all over the country. Raw materials could be taken from mines to factories and finished articles circulated nationally. In the following decades people used the steam railway network to travel from the countryside into the towns and cities to work. They also travelled by train to the seaside where the idea of bathing in the sea had become respectable ever since doctors encouraged it at the beginning of the 18th century.

victorian-paper

Mass production of goods from brass bedsteads to biscuits was made possible and promotional campaigns became popular on hoardings and at railway stations. The advent of newspapers and magazines brought more opportunities for advertising and products were now packaged as Cadbury’s cocoa or Birds custard powder, Coleman’s mustard or Sunlight soap.

 

 

Queen Victoria married Prince Albert in 1840 and his influence on the country were soon felt. He encouraged the queen to have an interest in state affairs and she was guided by Lord Melbourne during her early years. She repeatedly came into conflict with her ministers such as Lord Palmerston and William Gladstone although she liked Benjamin Disraeli and approved of his policies.

Crimea Medal

Her reign was relatively peaceful with only the short Crimean war,(1853 to1856) in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of Britain, France, Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire.

She had nine children, four boys and five girls over a period of seventeen years. After Prince Albert died of typhoid in 1861, at the age of 42, the Queen went into a long period of mourning, she dressed mainly in black for the rest of her life.

Queen Victoria died in 1901 when the monarchy passed on to her son King Edward VII.

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History of British Sweets

INTRODUCTION

Today, whether we like them or not, sweets can play a far more important role than simply that of nourishing food. More than just a quick source of energy, a snack, or a sweet sensation they can be a reward, a comfort, an enticement, a token of appreciation or even an object for barter at school.

The British sweet tooth has sunk deep into the economy – over £3000 million is spent on chocolates, toffeesboiled sweets and bars every year. During a sunny bank holiday weekend, four million sticks of rock are sold at over three hundred seaside resorts, each one with the town’s name running right through the middle of it from one end to the other; a feat of confectionary engineering that has puzzled many a child – and the occasional adult.

A DIP INTO HISTORY

It is not popularly appreciated that the variety and range of sweets on offer today has become available only during the last hundred and twenty years or so. Many of today’s leading brands are in fact, less than one hundred years old. Crunchie was launched in 1929, Mars Bar in 1932, Black Magic in 1933 and both Kit Kat and Quality Street in 1937. Conversely, younger generations do not always realize for how long such brands have been part of people’s lives.

The origins of confectionery can be traced back to about 2000BC when the ancient Egyptians satisfied their cravings for something sweet by combining fruits and nuts with honey. Liquorice juice, extracted from the root of the leguminous ‘Sweet Root’, is known to have been used for medicinal purposes at the same time. The forerunner of today’s Turkish delight was a uncompromising confection of boiled grape juice and starch cut into squares. Over 3000 years ago the Aztecs in Mexico were known to use the cocoa bean to make a bitter drink. However, it took 1500 years before that drink could be sweetened with sugar.

SUGAR

Sugar was thought to have healing properties, a factor which undoubtedly helped the sale of the apothecaries medicines, but they also found a ready market for sugar confections in their own right – for those who could afford them. In France sugared almonds became popular and in Italy Confetti (small hard, sugar plums) were eaten especially on celebratory occasions.

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE

It was the combination of sugar and cocoa that eventually set the confectionery story alight. The Spanish conqueror of Mexico, Cortez, brought cocoa and the chocolate drink back to Spain in 1502. The addition of sugar made this bitter drink more palatable, but it took almost another hundred years for the new drink to reach the rest of Europe. The first shop to sell drinking chocolate in London was opened in 1657.

The eighteenth century was witness to the birth of some prominent confectionery manufactures, and the nineteenth century with the advancement in mechanization saw them rapid expand.

John Cadbury opened a shop in 1824 in Birmingham selling tea, coffee and cocoa; his cocoa manufacturing business started a few years later. During the 1840’s both Fry’s and Cadbury’s were producing chocolate made specifically for eating, although the vast majority of  production was geared towards the manufacture of cocoa. It was also in 1853 that Fry’s launched their chocolate cream sticks, the forerunners of chocolate Cream Bars.

Fry’s Milk Chocolate was launched in 1902, and employed a most endearing image on it’s wrapper – the faces of five boys showing the transformation of expression when being consoled with Fry’s chocolate. This popular image had been used since 1886 to advertise Fry’s.

MEDICINAL CONFECTIONERY

Since the Middle Ages sugar has been mixed with medicines to ‘sweeten the pill’ and from the begining of the twentieth century there were many lozenges, gums and pastillies that served as throat soothers, stomach warmers or healthy energy givers. These are still popular today, and act to alievate pains and sores from coughs and colds. Cough Candy are a great example of this, and can be bought in store.

CONFECTIONERY IN THE 20th CENTURY

Confectionery has developed rapidly in the last hundred years, to the  extent that today the country consumes 600 million Mars Bars every year, 200 million Cadbury’s Creme Eggs and enough Kit Kats to keep pace with a machine that produces 80,000 bars an hour. Unfortunately to our detriment, we can no longer enjoy the pleasures of Spangles or Texan Bars. Oh.. so is life !!

Sweet and Confectionery Timeline

1866 Fry’s Chocolate Cream Bar
1902 Fry’s Milk Chocolate (5 Boys)
1905 Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
1910 Cadbury’s Bournville Plain Chocolate
1911 Wrigley’s Juicy Fruit and Spearmint Gum (UK Release)
1915 Cadbury’s Milk Tray 1921 Cadbury’s Fruit and Nut
1929 Fry’s Crunchie
1932 Terry’s All Gold
1932 Mars Bar
1933 Rowntree’s Black Magic
1935 Milky Way
1935 Rowntree’s Aero
1935 Kit Kat
1936 Quality Street
1936 Rowntree’s Dairy Box
1936 Maltesers
1937 Rolo’s
1937 Smarties
1939 – 1945 WWII
1948 Polo Mints
1948 Spangles
1951 Bounty
1958 Galaxy
1958 Picnic
1962 After Eight Mints
1967 Twix
1967 Marathon
1976 Yorkie
1977 Double Decker

and so it continues …

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